Fatih Aktas, Anadolu Agency, Getty Images. September 29, 2023. Extreme flash flooding in Brooklyn after heavy rains and poor infrastructure. Taken from CNBC Article here: NYC Climate Chief: We're playing catch-up on extreme weather (cnbc.com)
Image by Fatih Aktas

Fatih Aktas, Anadolu Agency, Getty Images. September 29, 2023. Extreme flash flooding

David Dee Delgado, Getty Images. June 7, 2023. New York suffered the world air pollution in the world after heavy smoke from Canadian wildfires moved south. Taken from: Wildfire Haze Adds To New York’s Climate Change Planning Needs - Inside Climate News
Image by Davud Dee Delgato

David Dee Delgado, Getty Images. June 7, 2023. Wildfire Haze

John Normile, Getty Images. November 19, 2022. A street lamppost is nearly buried in snow after 77 inches of snow fell in one weekend in Buffalo, NY. The frequency and severity of winter storms is increasing due to climate change. Photo from: PHOTOS: Record snowstorm buries parts of upstate New York under 6 feet of snow | PBS NewsHour
Image by John Normile

John Normile, Getty Images. November 19, 2022. Snowstorm buries parts of upstate New York.

Climate Change

Looking Below Ground for Solutions Climate Change Presentation by G. Trimber


Clip of Ideas Youth Education Climate Change


At its core, climate change simply indicates "any significant change in the measures of climate lasting for an extended period of time" (EPA, pre-2017). Global climate change is often spoken of in tandem with global warming, which refers to the recent warming trends in the average temperature of the Earth.

Information on Climate Change:

Talking About Climate Change:

From Duke University 20 Facts for Climate Deniers

From US Environmental Protection Agency 'Climate Change Indicators in the United States'

Skeptical Science: Global Warming & Climate Change Myths

Yale Program on Climate Change Communication, focusing on public attitudes, policy, and knowledge on climate in the U.S.

The Greenhouse Effect

Much like the glass of a greenhouse, the Earth's atmosphere keeps heat contained to a level that allows life to flourish. The atmosphere consists of water vapor, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases, which include carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. The general warming of the planet is being caused by an increase in these trace gases, often called 'greenhouse gases', which then trap increasing amounts of heat. Less of the infrared heat that is emitted by the Earth is able to pass through the atmosphere when these gases are increased, and instead reflect back, warming the Earth's surface more than usual.

Greenhouse gases are emitted during the burning of fossil fuels (like coal, oil and natural gas). The Environmental Protection Agency has an interactive map showing the  facilities that emit a large amount of greenhouse gases.


Image Source: BBC - to see larger image


Image Source: NOAA (see larger image)


The changing climate is interfering with natural cycles, causing extreme weather events, rising sea levels1 as glaciers and ice caps melt, and threatening many species with extinction as their environment changes and the oceans become increasingly acidic.

1. Hausfather, Zeke. The Global Climate in Context- 2013 in Review. The Yale Forum on Climate Change and the Media. 3 Feb. 2014.

Last updated December 6, 2023